- The
**extraterrestrial****solar****radiation**is directly calculated by using approved astronomic formulas in which**solar**time and geometry are involved. ... In 1986, Whiteman, C. D. and K. J. Allwine[4]provided a set of equations to calculate**extraterrestrial****solar****radiation**on a plane surface of arbitrary inclination and azimuth at any point on the ... - Equations are given to calculate the
**solar****radiation**received on a horizontal or inclined surface located at the top of the atmosphere. The spectral distribution of the**extraterrestrial****solar****radiation**is described. The second part of this book addresses how the**solar****radiation**incident at the top of the atmosphere is attenuated and modified in ... **Extraterrestrial Irradiation: The Solar Constant**The intensity of**solar irradiation**directly outside the earth’s atmosphere on a horizontal surface is almost constant at around 1,360 W/m 2., the so-called “**Solar**Constant”.: This entry point into**Extraterrestrial****solar****radiation****Extraterrestrial****solar****radiation**, G o, is the**solar****radiation**above the atmosphere and its as [19, 47]: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 24 3600 ω sin sin cos cos cos 180 sc o G G fL L δ δω × π = + π (1) where Gsc is called the**solar**constant which equals to 1367 W/m2 [25, 48, 49], f - the eccentric-